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A Visit to Old Quebec 

Marie Eugenie Jobin 
trade school for girls 

Parisians love their wonderful Paris 
with all their heart, and exhibit that 
fondness with a remarkable enthusiasm 
every time an occasion presents itself. 
It lias sometimes occurred to me that 
tin ma jority of Quebec people must be 
descendants of Parisians, because in 

their manner of expressing their senti- 
mental feeling for the old French town, 
they resemble one another greatly. The 
strong affection they possess for the 
city which was the cradle of French 
civilization in the New World, is a sen- 
timent that is never replaced nor ef- 

It is to be remembered that Quebec 
is the pride and glory of Canada. To 
speak of Quebec is to recall her glori- 
ous past. The names of the great 
French pioneers who mapped out New 
France are closely linked with the old 
capital, because the soul of New 
France was the soul of Quebec. 

The shores of the St. Lawrence, the 
Great Lakes, and the Mississippi are 
marked with exploits of these daring 

The charm of Quebec is undeniable, 

it conquers a great number of tourists 
at all times of the year. It is a very 
small city, but it is very attractive in- 
deed. Its geographical situation is 
ideal and Quebec stands like a queen 
on the high and rocky pedestal, its cit- 
adel, erect and proud above the sky 

The panorama observed from Duf- 
ferin Terrace is superb. Even people 
who are not given to sentimental emo- 
tions are fascinated and impressed. 
The Chateau Frontenac is an imposing 
and elegant structure with its charm- 
ing French turrets. One loves to roam 
from the halls to the magnificent rooms 
furnished in the style of the Old Re- 
gime. The atmosphere of the city is 
quite foreign, still somewhat provin- 
cial. The high stone walls, the city 
gates, the narrow cobblestone streets, 
even the old cannons placed in its well 
kept parks and squares suggest the 
many romances that are attached to the 
root of the old French town. An expe- 
dition along the historic Rue St. Louis 
will reveal the Rue du Parloir and the 
antique Convent of the Ursulines, 
which closes so admirably the perspec- 
tive of that narrow and aristocratic 

On that very street, St. Louis, lost 
among old stone mansions, apparently 
built to shelter generation after gen- 
eration, a glance will reveal the small 
house where Montgomery died, where 
ended so tragically the drama of the 
American invasion of the Dominion, 
and marked the end of a very interest- 
ing chapter of history. 

Almost every visitor loves to walk 
along past the Gate St. Louis, the 



.Grande Allee, the Parliament Build- 
ing, and reach the Plains of Abraham. 
It is rather thrilling to roam in that 
magnificent and modern park, where 
was played the destiny of New France. 
The monument is the only reminder of 
the tragedy of Wolfe and Montcalm. 
Numerous automobiles circle around, 
always stopping at the bastion where 
tourists alight in order to admire the 
splendid view of the river and the hills 
of the south shore. I love this famous 
spot on a bright morning of August, 
when the clear blue of the sky, the vio- 
let hills in the distance, joined to the 
chromatic effect of the flowers and 
shrubs, form such a handsome land- 
scape. It is hard to imagine then, how 
that lovely park could have been a 

The old Ramparts must not be for- 
gotten. There is always a certain 
fascination for me in standing in a 
bastion overlooking Beauport and St. 
Charles River. I can easily picture 
the pretty girls of 1775 standing there 
on those memorable heights, as they 
watched eagerly the Continentals who 
ventured within the walls with the flag 
of truce. Those old ramparts designed 
by Vauban are most interesting; they 
resemble the ramparts of southern 
French towns. That part of the city 
has a great deal of charm. There are 
vows and rows of inoffensive cannon 
balls arranged exactly the same as 
they are at Les Invalides in Paris. 

There is a mystic force that binds 
one to the old French capital. I ap- 
preciate its beauty far more since it 
lias been my privilege to visit the prov- 
incial towns of France. 

As dusk wraps up the city, as the 
shadow spreads over the hills, I love 
to listen to the chimes, in their con- 
cert of the Angelus. Deep and slow. 

solemn and gay, they reach my heart 
as they lose themselves into a dream. 

"Seule en ta sombre tour aux faites 

D'ou ton souffle descend sur les toits 

O cloche suspendue au milieu des 
nuees ! 

Par ton vaste roulis si souvent remue 
Qu'a cette heure ou s'endort la soiree 

Une ame est pres de toi, non moins 

que toi vibrante, 
Qui bien souvent aussi jette un bruit 


Et se plaint dans l'amour comme toi 
dans le ciel." 

(Part of the poem "La Cloche" by 
J'ictor Hugo) 

M. Lilian Smith 


Not for me the woman's part, 

Penelope a'weaving, 
Shrouds for hopes dead in the heart 

All the world deceiving. 

Let me hear the surges roar, 

With Ulysses sailing, 
Magic songs from Circe's shore, 

Or Polyphemus' railing. 

Though sometimes the big tears fall 

And the heart is aching, 
New shores of enchantment call. 

New dreams still are waking. 

Not for me the sheltered lot — 

Penelope a'weaving — 
All of life must be my lot 

Joy, perchance, or grieving. 



An Historic Monument of Paris 

Marie Eugenie Jobin 
trade school for girls 

'Objets inanimes, avez vous done une 

}ui s'attache a notre ame et la force 
The chief attractions of Paris may 
e for many, in the gay Boulevards, 
or others in the rich galleries of the 

increases and raises its outstanding 
value of beauty and its individual seal. 

Such is the case with the exquisite 
Church of Saint Germain l'Auxerrois 
that one perceives directly opposite the 
famous colonnade of the Louvre. Travel 
back into the realm of antiquity and 

Sa\x\l Gevvcv.a\\v.-\k.vxe.T?ovs 

Duvre or again in the Avenue du Bois 
• Boulogne; for me the real charm of 
iris consists in its variety of historic 
onuments, which seem to be lurking 
erywhere, behind shops or modern 

The lure of the antique fascinates 
id leads one's mind to an endless trail 
thrilling memories, and it seems to 
e that the presence of an old structure 

a vicinity of stores and fashion shops 

draw a mental picture of Paris in 656 
when Saint Landry (Bishop) obtained 
that plot of land from Clovis II on 
which he erected his parish church. 

It does not, of course, possess the 
Gothic magnificence of Notre Dame, 
nor does it compare to Sainte Chapelle 
in gorgeousness, but its wealth of his- 
toric associations is like a magnet in its 
power to attract visitors. Despite the 
centuries, and the numerous storms of 



wars that have gathered and passed, 
this lovely edifice stands calm and dig- 
nified, apparently undisturbed by the 
present turmoil, framed, as it were, by 
modern constructions. 

The original house of worship, partly 
destroyed by the Normans in 856. was 
replaced by a Church entirely differ- 
ent in its lines of architecture; later, 
during the XIII century, it was en- 
larged and rebuilt. The work of re- 
construction was carried on so slowly 

On the Southern side rises the lofty 
tower, whose chimes were borrowed to 
ring the signal of St. Barthelemy, on 
the memorable night of August 24, 
1572. One of those three bells, (named 
Marie. Pain and Vin), is now the pos- 
session of the Theatre "La Comedie 

If you are susceptible to the enchant- 
ing spell of history, a stream of 
thoughts will fill your mind as you cross 
the threshold of that charming old 

GrWle o\ CUovr 

that a marked diversity of architecture 
is quite obvious ; but in a certain meas- 
ure it has retained the character of 
each century. 

The principal portal dates back to 
the XIII century while the porch was 
not completed before 1439, after the 
evacuation of the English. 

It is beautiful in all its details. Com- 
posed of five arcades, the top of it is 
finished by an artistic balustrade which 
runs around the whole edifice. The 
facade lighted within by a colorful rose 
window, is flanked on each side by two 
charming turrets. The gable is sur- 
mounted by an angel executed by Maro- 


Church, which was once the most ad- 
mired House of Worship in all Paris. 
Because of its proximity to the Tuil- 
eries, the Kings came for the observ- 
ance of their Easter duties and many 
children of France were baptized in 
its holy precinct. A remark from the 
diary of l'Etoile reads as follows: 

"A peine entre a Paris, Henri IV, 
le 3 Avril 1594. dimanche de Paques 
fleuries, y fist le pain beni . . . et 
comme bon paroissien assista tout du 
long a la procession, tenant sa 
branche de rameau a la main." 
It is indeed a happy coincidence that 
this relic of the past was not demol- 
ished, when Napoleon planned a wide 


thoroughfare in that section of Paris. 

It had been used successively as a 
store, a club, a hospital, etc.; but its 
dramatic career ended in 1837, when 
it was admirably restored, regaining 
thus a part of its splendor. And an 
interest full of sentiment was revived 
immediately after a happy decision 
opened its door as a precious historic 

A number of fine paintings adorn the 
walls, and two superb altar pieces were 
placed in the Chapels of the Virgin and 
the Compassion. One dates from the 
XIV century and the other from the 
XVI century. The rose windows and 
the six stained glass windows of the 
transept, dating from the XV and XVI 
centuries, are not only remarkable for 
their blazing coloring, but their com- 
position in the realm of idea is elo- 
quent in their full significance of spir- 
itual element. Coats of Arms of dona- 
tors adorn the lower part in a most 
skillful arrangement. 

The Choir is closed by an unusual and 
artistically wrought iron grille, which 
was saved from destruction in 1792 by 
a sexton, who separated the parts and 
concealed them in the Church vault. 
Later, when the Church was restored, 
those parts were cleverly assembled. 

Whatever may be one's impression 
upon entering this Holy interior full of 
mysterious charm, an atmosphere of 
aristocracy, reminiscent of France's 
splendor, is immediately felt. The si- 
lence that prevails at all times of the 
day is powerful in its suggestion of his- 
toric contact. 

Every year adds to the number of 
European Universities which offer sum- 
mer courses to foreign students, who 
wish to study the language and culture 
of those countries in the countries them- 
selves. Because the general conditions 
in these countries across the sea differ 
from those with which the student is fa- 
miliar, a handbook of information, reli- 
able and timely, is an absolute neces- 
sity for the prospective student. 

Realizing this the League of Nations 
Institute of Intellectual Co-Operation 
has compiled just such a pamphlet: 
Holiday Courses in Europe 1929, which 
is obtainable in this country from the 
World Peace Foundation, 10 Mt. Ver- 
non Street, Boston (price 50 cents). 

One hundred and four Summer 
Courses are listed in this booklet, with 
full details as to date, place, subjects 
of instruction, program, certificates and 
diploma awards, facilities for traveling 
and residence, fees, additional data as 
to special privileges and the mail and 
cable address. 

Zinn the florist gives 15 per cent dis- 
count to members of Boston Teachers 
Club. Do not ask for it, simply show 
your membership card. Park Street, 
opposite the subway. 

One of the older members of the 
Boston Teachers Club has a summer 
place in New Hampshire, built among 
the pines and hemlocks on the shore of 
a small lake, a very comfortable place 
with screened porches, running water, 
bath, and a big stone fire-place. The air 
is clear and cool, for the altitude is 
1,200 feet, an ideal spot for one in 
need of rest and recuperation. 

Circumstances prevent the owner's 
family from joining her there this sum- 
mer, so she wishes to find three or four 
to keep her company — people who en- 
joy that kind of life. The round trip 
costs about ten dollars, and other ex- 
penses are comparatively light. If you 
are interested, please call or address 
448, 11 E. Newton Street, Boston. 






Noel in France 

Marie Eugenie Jobin 

• i 


Z-e* Anges dans nos Campagnes 
Les anges dans nos campagnes 
Ont entonne l'hymne des cieux 
Et l'echo de nos montagnes 
Redit ce chant melodieux 
Gloria in excelsis Deo 
Gloria in excelsis Deo 

est ne le Divin Enfant 
II est ne le divin Enfant, 
Joucz haut-bois, resonnez musettes; 
II est ne le divin Enfant, 
Chantons tous son avemenent. 
Depuis plus de quatre mille ans 
Nous le promettaient les prophetes 
Depuis plus de quatre mille ans 
Nous attendions cet heureux temps. 


Venez, Divin Messie! 
Venez, divin Messie, 
Sauvez nos Jours infortunes; 
Venez, source de vie, 
Venez, venez, venez ! 
Ah ! descendez, hatez vos pas, 
Sauvez les hommes du trepas, 
Secourez-nous, ne tardez pas : 
Venez divin Messie, 
Sauvez nos Jours infortunes: 
Venez, source de vie. 
Venez, venez, venez ! 

Treasures of memories and of ro- 
mances are attached to these French 
carols that are called "noels" in 
France. Their sentiments and their 
poetry sing to our hearts and are sweet 
echoes of beloved traditions transmit- 
ted to the French nation by their me- 
diaeval ancestors. They form a part of 
the rich heritage of customs of which 
so many are still in favor in every cor- 
ner of France. These musical produc- 
tions are very numerous; they vary ac- 
cording to the environment in which 
they were composed. The period also 
influenced their respective characters, 
and the sixteenth century left the most 
beautiful collection. While some mel- 
odies are the joyful expression of glad- 
ness and merriment, others hymns of 
solemn dignity were inspired by a dif- 
ferent kind of emotion. However, en- 
thusiasm, sentiment and poetry are all 
wrapped up in these charming "noels" 
full of eloquence and rhythm. They 
are the symbols of the artists' thoughts 
and it seems at times as if their shadows 
crept among the singers of to-day in 
the exaltation of their enchanting 
verses, imbibed with the meaning of 
their strong faith. They carry us to 


the feudal system of old France when 
people assembled in the castles on 
Christmas eve for the various ceremo- 
nies that were to be held before mid- 
night Mass. How easy it is *o form a 
vivid picture of that arm}' of villagers 
marching up the hill that leads to these 
ancient fortresses, and later witness the 
touching ceremony of the benediction 
of the log called in France "la buche 
de Noel." The youngest child generally 
performed this impressive act by pour- 
ing a few drops of wine on the huge 
log, saying "Au nom du Pere". This 
custom was in fact inaugurated for chil- 
dren for whom Christmas remains the 
privileged feast. It seems as if I could 
almost hear the singing of carols until 
midnight. Then came the attendance 
at the Mass in the chapel of the chat- 
eau and then lo and behold, came the 
feast, — the exquisite spread called 
the "rossignon" in old French, 
but now the famous "reveillon" in all 
four corners of France. The custom of 
the midnight Mass followed by a splen- 
did reveillon is now an established in- 
stitution. Every church and restaurant 
is open the night of Christmas. The 
restaurants offer exquisite menus to 
their patrons, turkeys stuffed with 
truffles, delicious dishes of all descrip- 
tions, and this extraordinary repast re- 
mains unequalled the year round. In 
private families invitations are sent out 
and the merry-rnaking lasts until morn- 
ing. The reveillon dates back to the 
middle ages. When people assembled 
in their churches to sing carols and per- 
form plays, luncheon was served to per- 
mit the actors, the singers and the mu- 
sicians to bear the hardship of a sleep- 
less night. Thus started the habit of 
always associating the reveillon with 
Noel. From a purely religious cele- 
bration Christmas became a time of re- 
joicing, especially in Burgundy, where 
fiddlers were heard four Sundays be- 


fore the great event. They sang merrily 
in old French "velai les avain qui 
passe". The evening preceding the 
Noel beggars were seen appealing to 
the generosity of the people and sing- 
ing carols. Volumes have been writ"- 
ten about the gay spirit of Burgundy 
which gave birth to precious collections 
of songs written in the dialect of that 
quaint province. The following verse 
is a vivid example of their expression 
of gladness: 

Voizin, c'a fai. 

Le troi messe son dite ; 

Deus heure on senai ; 

Le boudin e couite, 

L'andouille a prote, allon dejeunai. 

After several of these singular and 
odd lines the refrain would suddenly 
burst into this exclamation: 
Maingeon du por frai: 
Maingeon: j'airon bru 

Neighbor, 'tis done, 
The three masses are said; 
Two o'clock struck; 
The blood pudding is cooked. 
The sausage is ready, let us eat break- 

Let us eat fresh pork; 
Let us eat. 

So much rapture, so much freedom 
and sway, yet so far in beauty from 
the charming "noels" of holy signifi- 
cance. In certain parts of France the 
exchange of cakes called nieules and 
roasted chicken took place among 
friends. In some families the gifts 
were fastened at both ends of "La 
Buche de Noel" (the Christmas log.) 
Later the ashes of the blessed log were 
kept preciously to scatter in different 
parts of the house for good luck. 

The presentation of gifts often oc- 
curs on the first day of the year in- 
stead of on Christmas day, as it is 


the habit in our country, the United 
States, and that day is also an impor- 
tant holiday. However, for little chil- 
dren of France, Noel means the same 
as for the children of America. The 
miracle of childhood is about the same 
in every country. The child is the real 
poet, and his delicious- ecstasy carries 
him to dreamland where Pere Noel or 
Santa Claus lives, and whence he comes 

to fill his little shoe. The heart of the 
French child, like the heart of the Amer- 
ican child, is filled with sentiment and 
enthusiasm for the holy night of Noel, 
his eyes softly closing to the sweetest 
melody of their young years: 
Quand viendra Noel fete desiree, 
Voila mon enfant ce que tu feras, 
Tu mettras le soir sous la cheminee, 
Ton petit Soulier et puis tu dormiras. 

Thanksgiving in the Andes 

Ruth Blanchard Harvey to Beatrice Blanchard Quinn 

My dear Sister: 

On Thanksgiving Day you were 
much in my thoughts, for my very hap- 
piest recollections seem to hover about 
our family parties at Thanksgiving, 
and although I am so far away, still I 
fancy that I can again feel that at- 
mosphere of expectation that always 
seemed to hang over our house, can 
see and hear once more the gathering 
of the clan, and finally shall behold 
and show my appreciation of the great 
feast. 'Tis very true, Thanksgiving is 
vital to a New Englander and so it 
must be observed fittingly wherever she 
may find herself upon the appointed 
date. And so I will attempt to tell 
you how I kept the feast down here in 
Peru, 15700 feet above the level of 
the sea, in my little mountain house, 
which resembles outwardly a Swiss 
chalet as much as anything that you 
have ever seen. 

Now, while you are preparing for 
the winter, we are about to enter upon 
our summer, which is with us the un- 
pleasant time of year. Of course, with 
a glacier but three hundred feet from 
our back door, we need have little fear 
of heat. At this moment I am sitting 
in our courtyard where I can often 
glance up at a cage which hangs just 


outside the door. In it are my two birds 
sporting in the bright sunlight. If I 
should look at the thermometer I should 
find that it would register about sev- 
enty five degrees, just fifty degrees 
higher than it did last night when my 
mule brought me home in a cold sleet 
storm after an all-day ride through the 
mountains. This may give you an idea 
of the constancy of this rugged clime. 

But I promised to tell you about our 
Thanksgiving here in a foreign land, 
so different in language, custom and 
tradition from our own country, and I 
shall try not to digress again. 

First, I had better explain that there 
are never more than ten white women 
in our mining camp, and these come 
and go so often between the hospital 
at Lima (for there one pays for over- 
exertion in these mountains) and their 
former homes that rarely are all pres- 
ent. But the mine always employs 
about forty white men, as engineers, 
geologists, etc., thirty of whom are 
found to be unattached and doomed 
to dwell in the drabbest of boarding 
houses, the unhappy victims of unclean- 
liness and native cooking. Our hus- 
bands have the greatest sympathy for 
these boys (they have all tasted of life 
in that boarding house) and they plead 




A Vestige of the Old Regime 

Marie Eugenie Jobin 

Chateau in the village of Montebello, Que. 

The land of "Maria Chapdelaine" is 
here sympathetically interpreted by 
Mile. Jobin, who accompanies the 
article with an original drawing. It 
is interesting to note that Willa 
Cather, America's finest novelist, in her 
new book, "The Shadows on the Rock," 
confirms the impression of simplicity 
and virile faith of Quebec, to which 
Mile. Jobin testifies below. — Ed. 

O Notre Histoire ! — ecrin de perles 
ignorees ! 

Je baise avec amour les pages venerees. 

Louis Frechette 
The natural beauty of Quebec offers 
countless delightful surprises to the 

American tourist. Strolling leisurely 
along the national highway, he per- 
ceives here and there quaint and pic- 
turesque villages, lovely rivers, and a 
superb range of mountains (the Lau- 
rentians). There are sections, how- 
ever, hidden spots full of romance, that 
the enthusiastic and imaginative visitor 
should not fail to linger and see. Few 
places on this continent rival Quebec 
for historical background, because of 
its long association with old France, 
and it is with reason that the wise 
historian, de Tocqueville, once said, 
"Whether France was hated or loved 
by the outside world, she could not be 
ignored." One must admit that French 


t '.r * 





history thrills and fascinates its reader, 
and this thrill extends through the his- 
tory of her daughter, Quebec. 

The people of that French province,, 
especially the peasants, are more or 
less wrapped up in their past. They 
recall with zest, certain phases of his- 
tory, and they are extremely fond of 
that soil, cleared by their ancestors. 
For the majority, even under Britisli 
rule, Quebec is a sort of haven, where 
life goes on smoothly and peacefully 
without the complications brought on 
by modernism. Their simple mode of 
living has suffered practically no 
change since the separation of the 
Colony from France — the same cult 
of tradition, the same religious feeling, 
the same customs, the same language — 
these form an heritage which is prized 
more highly than wealth ... it is still 
the most cherished of all gifts, because 
it came from their beloved mother . . . 
France. Accustomed to accept life as 
it comes, the habitant is endowed with 
a happy and serene mood. Though 
thrifty and practical, sentiment is the 
important factor guiding his everyday 
actions. Happiness outside the inti- 
mate circle of the community is seldom 
conceived, and luxury means little to 
the majority of the French farmers of 
the St. Lawrence, in spite of their 5 
prosperity. In the simplicity of his 
provincial language, the French peas- 
ant often repeats the Canadian prover- 
bial motto, "L'union fait la force," and 
speaking of the future he quotes the 
poet with a significant shrug of the 
shoulder, "Oh ! l'avenir n'est a per- 
sonne. L'avenir est a Dieu." 

A very attractive page of French 
Canadian history pertaining to feudal- 
ism was called to my attention by a 
young French habitant last winter 
while I was visiting one of the most 
beautiful seigneuries of bygone days. 
, Along with the white standard of 

the Bourbon, the seigneury system was 
brought from France to Canada where 
it remained more prolonged than in 
any country governed by European 
powers. This system, which was the 
one practiced in France by landowners, 
was immediately adopted by the col- 
ony. The French powers realized that 
in order to colonize New France in a 
satisfactory manner, people of quality 
but without means, should be induced 
to come and make their homes in Can- 
ada. Recruiting was immediately 
started in almost every province of 
France, and by 1750 nearly three 
hundred fiefs (seigneuries) had been 
granted to gentlemen of France. It is 
somewhat amazing to realize that one 
hundred and ninety of these estates 
are still receiving rents from what are 
called "censitaires" (tenantries), the 
Seigneur still holding the rights of 
lordship. This custom, however, is fast 

Seigneuries were granted soon after 
the founding of Quebec by Samuel de 
Champlain, and to the Hebert family 
comes the honor of receiving the first 
fief. Hebert has the distinction of 
being the pioneer seigneur settler of 
French Canada, his seigneury having 
been granted to him in 1623 (he came 
to New France in 1617 from Paris). 
This manor house was situated where 
stands today the gate of the Laval 
University grounds (Quebec). 

These estates were vast, extending 
over one hundred square miles, and 
nearly always overlooking the water. 
There are few countries who treated 
their landowners with such generosity. 
The manor house was not a preten- 
tious construction like the French cha- 
teau — it was rather simple in its lina 
of architecture, built of stone and 
sometimes of wood. However, it was 
spacious and its interior revealed a cer- 
tain atmosphere of dignity and cere- 



mony, characteristic of French aristoc- 
racy. The furniture nearly always 
was imported from France. This na- 
turally contributed to the comfort as 
well as to the beauty of a seigneurial 
home in New France. 

The relation between the seigneur 
and his "censitaires" varied consider- 
ably as compared with that of old 
France. The obligations imposed upon 
the peasants were not heavy, and the 
population as a whole enjoyed a lib- 
eral amount of freedom. To be sure, 
dues and services were rendered the 
seigneur through the year, but the title- 
deeds differed according to the agree- 
ment of the seigneur and the habitant. 
Chickens, grain, and a very small 
amount of money (less than one franc) 
composed the annual payments, which 
were brought to the manor house the 
first days of November. On this oc- 
casion, peasants met and rejoiced prac- 
tically the whole day long at the 
Seigneury. Social life was simplified, 
chiefly influenced by the conditions of 
the country. Life being plainer than 
it was in France, no great gulf existed 
between the lord and habitant. The 
seigneur, in fact, worked as hard and 
sometimes harder than the peasants 
themselves. These lines of the poet 
express the people's feelings during the 
early days of the colony. 

"Sur cette terre encor sauvage 
Les vieux titres sont inconnus; 
La noblesse est dans le courage, 
Dans les talents, dans les vertus." 

The Seigneury was the heart and 
also the social center of every village. 
The peasant were frequent visitors at 
the manor house, and strong links of 
affection and common patriotism united 
these people toward the same ideals. 
Canadian records show a large number 
of marriages that took place between 
seigneurs and peasants. It would re- 

quire a volume to relate in detail the 
life and customs of the "Anciens Can- 
adiens" (Canadiens of by-gone days) 
under the old regime. 

In the village of Montebello, in 
land of hills and pines, seventy-five 
miles from the city of Montreal, 
perched on a cliff overlooking the su- 
perb Ottawa River, stands an attrac- 
tive replica of a French chateau. This 
relic of feudalism was formerly the 
property of the Honorable Louis Jo- 
seph Papineau, whose name recalls 
the memorable events of 1837-38 (Chief 
and leader of the rebellion). The last 
heir of this historic domain was killed 
in France, on the field of honor. It 
is now the possession of a club, mem- 
bers of that favored organization strolli 
about leisurely through its spacious 
rooms furnished a la Louis XIV and 
Louis XV, and which are stamped with 
the aristocratic charm of the old regime. 

One delights to roam about a Seig- 
neurial home, to be thrilled by all these 
memories linked with such an unusual 
survival of French regime in America. 
There in the southwest tower in the 
"rez-de-chaussee" (first floor on the 
level with the ground), the vestibule, 
where "Monsieur le Seigneur Papineau J ® ^ 
received his rents on the first days of 1 ^ 
November. His desk and chair still "o % 
form a part of that scant furnishing of 
a Seigneur's office. From that hall a 
graceful and pretty staircase leads to 
the upper floors, and long French win- 
dows open on a lovely terrace. Mon- 
sieur Papineau's library was in the 
square tower and that is presumably 
where he prepared his remarkable 
speeches. The Chapel, an artistic con- 
struction of stone similar to the Manor 
house in lines, is the last resting place 
of the members of this prominent fam- 
ily. A charming little chalet at the 
edge of the buff overlooking miles of 
the silvery Ottawa river, reminds one 

Of the calm and tranquil days of coun- 
try life in the past century. One al- 
most draws a mental image of these 
French ladies busy with needle work, 
smiling and happy in these magnificent 
surroundings, children playing and 
breaking the monotony by their gay 

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Art Sentiment an 

How manv of us remain indifferent 
to those bits of paper bearing words of 
love and friendship, sent and received 
at Christinas time, when the whole 
world rejoices? It does not seem ex- 
aggerating to state that almost all nor- 
mal individuals cherish these messages 
which continually spread happiness and 
good understanding among people. "To 
Rk.member You At Christmas Time" 
are magic words, which compel one to 
listen to these secret voices of the heart 
murmuring sweet refrains of peace, 
love, and forgiYeness. which are so 
often crushed by the bustle and hustle 
of our tn.ode.rn existence. 

Materially speaking, the Christinas 
card is just a pretty picture, with a 
few lines of sympathetic nature, some- 
times a word or two as a greeting. But 
for most of us it is more than that — 
it is the thought of the sender behind 
that missive that pleases us so deeply. 
Therefore, the memory of the man who 
conceived the splendid idea of sending 
a card with his salutations to his friends 
at Christmas time, deserves to be hon- 
ored. It is one of the most charming 
customs that ever was originated. The 
birth of such a usage has created an 
atmosphere of joy and its value as a 
peace maker cannot be estimated. It 
lias kept and renewed the tie of friend- 
ship; it has brought romance and love 
and strengthened the bond of amicable 

To be true, greetings at Christmas 
time date back so far that it seems al- 
most impossible to find the exact date 
of their origin. But the card itself 
appeared in England in 1846. The 
credit belongs to Sir Henry Cole, who 
requested Mr. Horslev, an artist mem- 
ber of the Royal Academy to design a 

Christmas Cards 

card which he wanted to send to his 
friends with greetings. 

That first card was a most elab- 
orate affair, well drawn and well de- 
signed; it created quite a sensation in 
England. Unfortunately, it cannot be 
reproduced here, but a description 
might in some way help the reader to 
form an idea of its composition. On 
the border of the card is a grape vine 
entwined in a trellis. The main part 
of that oblong cardboard is divided in- 
to three panels, a large one in the cen- 
ter, in which is seen a group of figures 
merry making, seemingly a family 
party. The designs in the other two 
panels are also figures, but those sym 
bolize the act of charity. "The feeding 
of the Hungry" on one side and "The 
Clothing of the Naked" in the other. 
"A Merry Christmas and a Happy New 
Year to you" is printed below the whole 
composition. In the upper right hand 
corner is that word To — with a space 
left for the name of the friend to whom 
the card was sent. At the bottom a 
space is also left for the signature of 
the sender. It was lithographed and 
printed, only 1,000 copies being struck 
at that time, the card was then hand 
colored. Later in 1881 the firm of De 
La Rue reproduced that very same card 
in the chromo-lithographic process, and 
a large number of copies were sold. 

At first the Christmas card was ridi- 
culed, although accepted and used by 
a few people. However, in 1867, it 
became an established custom through- 
out England, when, from the royal 
family to the lower classes practically 
every one sent his greetings through 
the medium of a card. That new form 
of conveying messages of good cheer 
apparently pleased the whole nation. 





Mail}- business firms proceeded to en- 
courage an industry which promised 
such favorable returns. 

During the early stages of the greet- 
ing card artist members of the Royal 
Academy were engaged to create de- 
signs, and large sums of money were 
paid for suitable subjects. The firm 
of Marcus Ward & Co. attained a very 
high standard of beauty in their card 

Through an exhibition of her charm- 
ing drawings of fairies and children. 
Kate Greenaway s talent came to light, 
and sudden revival occurred in the de- 
signing of the Christmas cards. Other 
artists of repute produced new and 
extremely original compositions. Tims 
the general standard of greeting cards 
was kept at a superior level. 

In this country the honor of the first 
Christmas card industry belongs to the 
well known Louis Prang, who per- 
fected the lithographic process of multi- 
color printing. 

In 1874, he gave his attention to the 
reproduction of Christinas cards, which 
he printed in eight to twenty colors. 
Louis Prang called those chromos. but 
they were charming and beautiful in 
both design and coloring. Those were 
bought by English houses who admired 
Mr. Prang's artistic product. By se- 
curing the services of first class artists, 
and by offering large sums of money 
in competitions, he achieved that un- 
usual distinction which characterized 
his greeting cards. A first prize win- 
ning composition by Elihu Vedder may 
be seen now in the Congressional Li- 
brary at Washington. It is placed at 
the head of the stairway. 

To-day, the designers of greeting 
cards cannot be counted nor the im- 
portance of that industry be measured. 
The designs are numerous, in spite of 
the great repetition of subject mat- 

I ter. The verse is seldom original, yet' 
the cards have a certain appearance of 

| novelty because of the change of the 
material that goes to make it. The 
paper is often colored, and the shapes 
have a marked diversity. A profusion 
of gold and silver adds a striking note 

I to the fancy little message carrier. 

Certain designs are more readily ac- 
cepted than others. This fact is al- 
most impossible to explain from year 
to year. The snow covered cottage with 
lighted windows is favored by many, 
while others prefer the traditional 
Christmas tree or candle. The poor 
camel seems to have lost his popularity, 
but the dog and puppy have gained 
many friends, while the deer has no 
intention of ceding his place as a mes- 
senger of good cheer. The madonnas 
have suddenly acquired a marked pref- 
erence over other designs, and so has 
| the church, cathedrals (especially re- 
' productions of etchings), find a vast 
number of admirers. The popularity 
of a design often depends on the peo- 
ple's frame of mind at Christmas time. 

The manner of reproduction varies 
considerably, but the line-cut is about 
the most popular, being inexpensive 
to reproduce and print. The hand col- 
oring pleases the public. The photo- 
gravure is also very good, but the half- 
tones are not satisfactory. The col- 
ored nrints found in every shop are the 
most common. The etchings and the 
wood cuts or block prints are beginning 
to be appreciated by many who have 
learned the artistic value of good, orig- 
| inal designs. I personally agree with 
the artist (I think it was Poussin) 
who said, "Les choses es quelles il y 
a de la perfection ne se doivent pas 
voir a la hate, mais avec temps, judg- 
ment et intelligence. II faut user des 
memes moyens a les bien juger comme 
a les bien faire." (The things which 
are perfect should not be seen hastily 
hut with time, judgment and intelli- 
gence. One must use the same means 
to judge them well as it took time 
to make them.) It takes time to learn 
how to appreciate artistic beauty in 
any object, and the selecting of cards 
at times seems extremely difficult. The 
standard fortunately is being raised ev- 
ery year, and many people who are be- 
coming educated along the lines of art 
appreciation, are having their personal 
card designed. 

May this joyful and lovely habit of 
sending our greetings continue years 
and years to come. We are all sensi- 
tive to this mark of attention from our 
friends at Christmas time, and a holiday 
without a card would seem strange 
indeed. M. E. Jojfe/ 


The oldest customs arc, no doubt, 
i more loved and venerated than the new 
r ones. The singing of carols dates back 
centuries, yet its importance grows into 
such magnitude that libraries are being 
searched to find ancient books and man- 
uscripts which might contain older 

Christmas Day is celebrated with ex- 
ited significance and no feast furnishes 
lore food to the imagination. On that 
lay of gladness the hearts and voices 
of the people are in perfect harmony 
and the Christinas Carol always brings 
back charming memories. Its music 
suggests kindness and sweetness and 
the natural character of these lovely 
hvmns has a strong appeal to the soul. 
I Thev are unique and stand apart from 
^krdinary church hymns. 

i Carols are sung all over the civilized 
^■orld, but Italy claims the credit of 
Kavinsr given birth to this form of sing- 
™ ing. However, all countries have their 


original ones which are full of local 
color. England sings her Christmas 
Carols, Germany her Weinachtslieder, 
France her Noels, and Italy her Laudi 
Spirituali. In this country we sing 
them all, English. German, French and 
even Danish ones. 

The carols may possibly have origi- 
nated at the beginning of the Christian 
Era. but these musical sketches have 
very little in common with the carol of 
the Middle Ages. In the IX Century 
at Tutilon in France, a monk wrote for 
Christmas "Hodie Cantundus est" 
which is probably the most celebrated 
hymn retained in Europe. A manuscripf 
of the XI Century found in Provence, 
France contains a Noel (carol) similar 
to the ones that were sun<>- in Rome at 
tin end of the VIII Century. 

A French abbot (Leboeuf) claimed 
that the carol was born in the North 
of France because of the Latin poetry 
written in 1191 by de Lambert, Prior 
of Saint Vast of Arras. He added also 
that those songs did not resemble 
Gregorian music but rather the vaude- 
ville songs of 1711. However, the mys- 
tery play with the carol was a tradi- 
tion brought from Italy. When Saint 
Francis of Assisi gathered his commu- 
nity in the church on the December 
night of 1223. the first real carol was 
sung and the mystery play was born. 
The population inspired by the monks 
singing new canticles awoke to a new 
life filled with mystic joy. 

The mystery play, rather simple in 
itself, was full of holy significance for 
those people who had beforehand lis- J 
tened to profane minstrels. The con- 
nection of the carol with mysterv plays 
lasted until the 15th Century, but the 
enthusiastic population soon began to 
sing these carols without any perform- 

A large number of carols have lines 







in English and Latin — many ending 
with "In excelsis Gloria." A nativity 
carol that was written entirely in Eng- 
lish dates back to the XV Century: 
/ sing of a maid 

That is makeless 
King of Kings 

To her Son she eh i s (chose) 

He came all so still 

When his Mother was, 

As dew in A pril 

That falieth on the grass. 

He came all so still 

To his Mother's bower. 

As dew in April 

That falieth on the flower. 

He came all so still 

Where his Mother lay 

As dew in A pril 

That falieth on the Spray. 

Mother and maiden 

Was never none but she; 

Well may such a lady 
Goddes Mother be. 

Another one half French and half 
Latin (XVI Century): 

Celebrons la naissance 
Nostri Salvatoris f 
iQui fait la complaisance 
' Dei sui Patris. 

Another (1555) : 

Descendra le Saint-Esprit , 
Super te Obumbrabit . . . 
Regarde Elizabeth! 
Qui bene fecit habet. 

These words were found in a manu- 
script of the XI Century, from the 
Abbey Saint Martial of Limoges. A 
Dominican by the name of S. Tauler. 
I born in Strasbourg, wrote one in 1294 
Bin Alsatian dialect. Many of the very 
^parly noels were lost according to rec- 
ords in which they are mentioned by 
troubadours in their fables. 

An English carol, dating back to th< 
XV Century must have been extremely 
popular by the many variants that are 
found in divers books: 
There comes a ship far sailing then, 
Saint Michael was the Stieres-man ; 
Saint John sate in the horn, 
Our Lord harped, our Ladye sang, 
And all the bells of heaven they ran 
On Christis Sunday at morn. 

The XIX Century has the distinctid 
of claiming the birth of the most eel 
brated noel of all times. The "Noel 
d'Adam attained an unexplained suc- 
cess. It is translated in many lan- 
guages and sung in almost every church 
on Christmas Day. Its composer, 
Adolph Charles Adam was a professor 
of piano in the Paris Conservatory of 
Music. In the pastor of Roque' 

maure Church requested the author of 
the poetry (Cappeau) to write a noe l 
for which Adam would compose tin 
melody. The carol was composed De- 
cember 3rd and sung at Midnight Mass 
on Christmas day. M. E. J. 





^Thoughts About Art 

Edited by Marie Eugenie Jobin 

Outside of France, Boston may 
proudly boast of being the only city 
where murals of the famous artist. 
Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, adorn the 
wads of a public building. When the 
architect requested the distinguished 
Frenchman to contribute to the interior 
beauty of our • Public Library, it w as 
in vain that he spoke of his advanced 
age of sixty-seven years, and his desire 
to retire; the determined American re- 
fused to accept any plausible excuse, 
and four years later, not without a cer- 
tain feeling of regret. Puvis tie Cha- 
vannes began this huge project which 
he never was to contemplate in its beau- 
tiful and dignified position in our Li- 
brary. "I am as a father whose daugh- 
ters are entering a convent," he said, 
as he saw his work go across the sea to 

This series of mural decorations 
were all executed in France in the 
artist's studio. The entire masterpiece 
is composed of a central panel entitled 
"The Muses of Inspiration Hail the 
Spirit, the Messenger of Light," and 
eight other side panels, each one sym- 
bolizing Philosophy, Astronomy, His- 
tory, Epic, Dramatic, Pastoral poetry. 
Chemistry and Physics, with scenes 
from history. It is a powerful and su- 
perb pictorial composition full of mean- 
ing which makes an inspiring appeal to 
almost everyone who walks up the main 
^stairway of the Library for the first 
-time. It is impressive in its interpre- 
tation of spiritual and educational mes- 
sage. It may be called idealistic, yet 
it conveys directly to the imagination 

Philosophy — Plato and a disciple 

its many realistic qualities related by 
incidents translated on each canvas. 
Poetry and mystery are skilfully linked 
together with the concrete and the en- 
tire composition is stamped with the 
stirring and full significance of his con- 
ception, yet radiantly beaming with 
simplicity. The superior quality of his 
r (Continued on Page 24) 




Thoughts About Art 

{Continued from Page 19) 
composition disclosed his intimate 
feeling of wanting to profess a marked 
impassibility and very seldom do we 
notice any expression of gloom or sad- 
ness in any of his pictures. His themes 
are well chosen and appropriate as we 
may easily judge here in Boston, and 
in the original splendor of his genius 
and high ideals. Puvis de Chavannes 
followed the impulse of his soul. 
An Original Genius 

This remarkable Frenchman, con- 
trary to the majority of geniuses did 
not astonish his parents and his 
friends by his precocious ability to 
draw. A severe illness was the cause 
of his absence from the yearly contest 
of engineers in Paris. His convales- 
cense spent in Italy resulted in a 
change of mind concerning his career 
and it was during that time that he 
became aware of his great love for Art. 
In contemplation before the works of 
Italian masters he was thrilled and felt 
the strong urge to paint. Then in him 
awoke the imaginative power that was 
to amaze the world. 

Upon his return from Italy, he be- 
gan to paint and study seriously. He 
never professed the usual admiration 
that young art students feel toward 
their teachers, and he actually left 
Couture, the great artist, because he 
differed in his opinion about the "Value 
of Tones." This marked independence 
of thought was to lead him on the right 
road, when he finally resolved to de- 
vote his talents to mural painting. 

In all his paintings in France as w T ell 
as here in Boston, no contemporary 
work seemed to have influenced him in 
any way, and he painted in a style that 
was entirely different, prompted by the 
unique consideration of interpreting his 


own ideas. He cleverly mastered the 
elimination of details which gives each 
canvas that superb effect of grandeur. 
There is, however, an accurate render- 
ing of the beautiful sequence of nature, 
but a marked soberness is obvious 
throughout the whole composition. 
Rather powerful in abstract expres- 
sions, Puvis gave to many people the 
impression of having been influenced by 
impressionism in the treatment of his 
paintings, but with a masterly skill lie 
rather followed his first inspiration 
which undoubtedly came from his ad- 
miration of Giotto's genius. Neverthe- 
less, the whole idea is extremely elo- 
quent in suggestion. 

The unusual coloring of this great 
work has caused many comments, how- 
ever; in all his mural decorations, Puvis 
de Chavannes used very little pure color. 
There is a general tonality of blue 
throughout the composition with gray- 
ish tones which it is said are symbolic 
of his childhood memories. Puvis was 
born and brought up in Lyon near the 
river Soane where gray days are very 
numerous. The fog which often wraps 
up the landscape of that section of 
France made a lasting impression on 
the child's mind. But this whole work 
is remarkable for so many other quali- 
ties that the coloring becomes a secon- 
dary matter. It is the soft tone of his 
beloved country that he chose to send 
to us with his poetic message of truth. 

Whatever may be the impression of 
many who have not seen his other 
works, the eloquence of his conception 
combined with the general beauty of 
this superb allegory remains a stimu- 
lating and impressive poem full of sig- 
nificance. It seems as if this great 
genius had opened his heart to tell us 
of his ardent love for nature and to re- 
veal to us the nobility of his character. 

- c 



Edited by Marie Eugenie Jobix 

Claude Monet and the Impressionist School 

France, the country of Art, has not 
produced a more illustrious artist than 
Claude Monet, who may be called the 
master of the Impressionist School and 
the creator of a new mode of painting. 
His influence contributed in a large 
measure to the birth and growth of a 
radical movement in the general char- 
acteristic of painting landscapes. With- 
out being aware of it, Monet used more 
freedom in expressing his ideas than 
any other artist of that period: to his 
analytical vision was added an unusual 
feeling for thought. He followed his 
own method, reasoning the whole per- 
formance with special concern for the 

Monet really did not originate a 
theory, but as a lover of nature he en- 
deavored to interpret his feelings with 
a rare technical skill, realizing at the 
same time with his powerful concep- 
tion, the full significance of careful ob- 
servation. Hence the reason why 
Monet, in spite of his independence and 
originality, actually created a method 
of painting which now appears in per- 
fect harmony with the scientific the- 
ories of the color spectrum. And his 
ability to execute what many call in- 
tuitive work may be compared to the 
work of the scientists themselves. He 
gave us the first example of the theory 
of complementary colors, as, with his 
exceptional eye-sight he perceived the 
reflections of opposite hues in the daz- 
zling sunlight. It is, therefore, not 
surprising that his course of procedure 
with separate tones by juxtaposition 
appeared ridiculous at first, as no one 
had ever conceived that this particular 
w T ay could bring about happy results. 

All these researches and experiences 
attest to the powerful personality of 

this remarkable genius who followed 
his own inclination, regardless of pub- 
lic opinion. Called at first by his ene- 
mies, a maniac and an ignorant, Monet 
was at last surnamed the magician of 
colors. A man as gifted as Monet 
could produce with apparently no ef- 
fort, exquisite compositions which 
would undoubtedly have required years 
of practice for others to achieve. As a 
genius, he took advantage of the unlim- 
ited resources of his art. feeling for his 
idea, and thus reaching the highest 
limit of pictorial subtilty. 

Very few artists have experienced a 
more bitter beginning of a career than 
Monet, whose parents were entirely 
opposed to an artistic vocation for their 
son. At times he was practically de- 
prived of the necessities of life, and 
was reduced to the hardship of having 
to cultivate his own garden in order to 
feed himself and family. It is obvious 
that without his robust health. Monet 
could never have emerged from such 
a long period of poverty, of anguish, of 
humiliation and of injustice. He trained 
himself to an unusual self discipline at 
the very start, leading a quiet life away 
from temptations. A trip to Paris at 
the age of seventeen convinced the fu- 
ture genius that the freedom of the 
country was much to be preferred to 
the bohemian life of a city. 

Claude Monet was born in Paris, No- 
vember 14, 1840, and by a queer coin- 
cidence, on the same day as the well- 
known sculptor. Rodin, who was to be- 
come one of his most devoted friends. 
However, his childhood was spent in 
Havre, where he began by drawing car- 
icatures that attracted the attention of 
the painter. Eugene Boudin, who took 
the young man with him to paint land- 







scapes. Monet claimed afterwards that 
his awakening to the beauty of nature 
dated from his association with Boudin. 
Monet was but sixteen years of age 
when he exhibited his work along with 
his teacher's (Boudin) in Rouen. He 
continued to paint in Havre with Bou- 
din, and the Dutch painter. Jongkind. 

In 1863, he decided to go to Paris 
and enter Gleyre's studio, where he re- 
mained but a short time, because he 
realized that his manner of interpreta- 
tion differed vastly from that of other 
artists, partisans of the old school. 

His pictures, "La Pointe de la 
Heve" and "Embouchure de la Seine 
a Honfleur," were admitted to the Paris 
Salon of 186.5, with favorable com- 
ments in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts. 
Later, he painted a composition called, 
"Dejeuner Sur l'Herbe," which he de- 
stroyed partly after receiving a crit- 
icism from a fellow artist. The sketch 
of that composition is now in the Mu- 
seum of Francfort. His name figured 
again among the exhibitors of the Paris 
Salon of 1866, with a picture entitled, 
"La Dame a la Robe Verte," a magnifi- 
cent painting that was bought by an art 
dealer for the sum of $160. It was un- 
fortunately sold by the son for half the 
original price, and later the Berlin Mu- 
seum gladly gave $6,000 for it. Dis- 
ciples of the old school succeeded in 
their efforts to exclude Monet from the 
Salon, and his next attempt met with 
complete failure. 

The press sarcastically criticised this 
new movement in the field of Art. and 
Monet met constant obstacles every- 
where. During those best years of his 
life, he labored with zeal and courage, 
determined to pursue his career with- 
out encouragement or support. The 
beautiful picture that the jury had re- 
jected, "Femmes au Jardin," was 
painted entirely out of doors, and it 
was placed in a window of rue Auber, 
where Manet, the great artist, saw it. 
If Monet, at the beginning of his 
career, admired Manet's work, and 
slightly followed his influence, Manet 
after expressing his doubts at the 
success of this new mode of paiiating. 

completely changed his attitude and 
sought the acquaintance of Monet, who 
in turn impressed him with his method 
of painting landscape entirely out-of- 
doors. Manet called his friend, Monet, 
"The Raphael of the Marines." 

Nevertheless, other artists became 
interested in this new technique, and in 
1870, a group, with Monet as the 
leader, formed a society. Unfortu- 
nately, it was only much later, in 1871, 
that these artists, scattered by the war 
of 1870, met again to plan their first 
exhibit, as the Salon kept on excluding 
them. In that society, called "Societe 
Anonyme des Artistes, peintres, sculp- 
teurs et graveurs," figured names of 
well-known artists such as Manet, 
Renoir, Degas, Pissaro, Cezanne, Raf- 
faelli, and many others, besides several 
good writers, novelists, and art critics. 
This first exhibit was held in the heart 
of Paris, on the Boulevard des Capu- 
eines, in the shop of an art amateur, 
whose reputation was that of a clever 
and intelligent man. 

Monet contributed generously to this 
exhibit by sending several superb land- 
scapes, among which was a composi- 
tion of early morning, that he entitled, 
"Impression, Soleil Levant" (Impres- 
sion, Rising Sun). Immediately, the 
public, with a great deal of sarcasm, 
called the group "Impressionists." The 
name was accepted cheerfully, in spite 
of the fact that the word, in a certain 
measure, was quite devoid of real sig- 
nificance, as impressionism actually ex- 
ists at the base of all work of art. 

The prices for all those magnificent 
pictures were ridiculously low. The 
highest bid for Monet's pictures was 
about sixty-five dollars, while many 
pictures were sacrificed for the small 
sum of ten dollars. The press was re- 
sponsible for the general attitude of 
ridicule and irony, maintained by the 
public, who continued for many years 
to sneer at each annual exhibition that 
the enterprising group held independ- 
ently. However, the well-organized 
society kept together, giving proof of 
a rare loyalty of friendly feeling, and 
gaining new supporters every year. 
(Concluded on page 30) 






Thoughts About Art 


Claude Monet, Impressionist 

Favorable comments published by 
well-known writers influenced people to 
realize that this new method after all, 
though somewhat temperamental, was 
full of power, of deep feeling, and 
above all, decidedly true in its effect 
of luminosity. 

It was. therefore, only just that a 
place should be given to these patient 
and determined painters who had 
passed such a period of humiliation. 
Indeed, the need of sympathetic un- 
derstanding was urgent to help them 
to keep up their courage and vigor, as 
the illusion of youth had gone with the 
years, and all of these men had reached 
maturity. Fortunately, men such as 
Zola, Duranty, Daudet, and later Cle- 
menceau, came to uphold them mate- 
rially and morally. A gleam of hope 
replaced the old feeling of depression, 
and they continued to paint, translat- 
ing their observation of atmospheric 
conditions in their own original way. 
surrounded by friends who were to ac- 
company them to a success of which no 
one could possibly have dreamed. 

Still, Monet's one-man show of 1880, 
which represented about twenty years 
of unceasing labor, and which included 
masterpieces that have been universally 
admired since then, failed to arouse the 
stubborn public. His magnificent pic- 
ture, "Debacle," was purchased for the 
sum of $400 by a friend, who was un- 
der the impression that she was doing 
the artist a great favor. 

It took five more years for the tire- 
less genius to be recognized, and Mo- 
net, who had contributed regularly to 
the annual "Salon des Impression- 
istes," finally figured at the Exposition 
Internationale of 1885, with artists 
such as Besnard, Sargent, Stevens, Ca- 
zin, etc. Monet, Renoir, and Raffaelli, 
were once more admitted in the group 
of prominent artists. 

His greatest triumph dates from the 
important exhibit that he held in Paris, 
in comDany with Rodin, the celebrated 
sculptor. The distinguished impres- 

from page 17) 

sicnist displayed an endless diversity 
of compositions that belonged to his 
enormous achievement from his first 
picture, "Pointe de la Hcvc," to his 
superb series of la "Creuse." A general 
awakening took place among the pub- 
lic, whose attitude of respect marked 
this memorable event. It is clear that 
Monet's marvelous interpretation of 
nature drew attention and met with ap- 
preciation, at last because the charm 
of his splendid coloring actually estab- 
lished his superiority as a landscape 
painter. As a poet-artist, he command- 
ed deference and consideration, and 
genuine admiration had replaced the 
old feeling of derision and mockery. 
His paintings are masterpieces of com- 
position as well as of color. They are 
the symbol of his intimate feeling of 
love for the grandeur of nature that he 
seemed to understand more deeply than 
any other artist. 

Monet, settled on his estate at Giv- 
erny. remained unchanged by glory and 
wealth. He declined honors that were 
offered to him, and continued to paint 
series of pictures on one theme con- 
ceived like the stanza of a poem. He 
loved to recall the hard times of his 
youth, when no one wanted to buy his 
paintings. Always astonished at the 
fabulous prices paid for his canvases, 
the old artist would smile, then often 
express his views about the difficulty 
of translating nature, "It is so hard to 
paint, one never knows, it is sometimes 


This course is of special interest to 
Massachusetts teachers, as Boston was 
a pioneer in this field. Miss Theresa 
A. Dacey, Director of Speech Improve- 
ment, will give to others the results of 
her findings in 1 1 ,000 cases. Stammer- 
ing, stuttering and other speech dis- 
abilities are discussed. 

(See Massachusetts Department of 
Education, University Extension.) 




Marie Eugenie Jobin 

The Artist's Mother 
Lent by the Louvre 

by James McNeill Whistler 
Paris, and exhibited through 
Courtesv of the Museum of Modern Art, New York 

Whistler and His Paintings 

The most popular painting that an Amer- 
ican artist has ever created is undoubtedly 
the fascinating picture by Whistler entitled 
"Portrait of the Artist's Mother." Repro- 
duced in colors and in black and white, this 
famous canvas has drawn considerable at- 
tention especially since "Mother's Day" has 
become an established custom in all parts of 
the United States. The original, which is 
being exhibited in Boston until May 13th, 
belongs to the French Government which was 
the first to discover the unusual genius of the 
artist. England and America both bitterly 
regret that it is not their proud possession, 
but no one could have chosen a better place 
than the Louvre to shelter such a treasure, 
because more people will enjoy the privilege 
to admire it there than if it were in London, 

New York, or even in Boston. And every 
one is a'.vare that "All Good Americans Go to 
Paris When They Die." 

It is a composition of unusual charm and 
simplicity, unique in its power to interpret 
a feeling of repose by the expression of 
sweetness and tenderness that he gave to the 
dignified figure. It is almost unbelievable 
that such a masterpiece, painted in 1871, 
could have remained unappreciated until 
1883, when Whistler decided to send it to 
the French Salon where the jury accepted it 
without any comments. It pleased the pub- 
lic by its extreme beauty filled with senti- 
ment. The connoisseurs praised the delicate 
transparency of his color scheme which re- 
vealed the depth of his power as a painter, 
(Continued on Page 26) 




(Continued from Page 23) 
and he was awarded a medal for his merit as 
a great artist. 

James Abbott McNeil Whistler was born 
at Lowell, Massachusetts, July 11th, 1834. 
His father, George Washington Whistler, an 
officer in the American Army, contributed by 
his skill to the establishment of the steam 
railroad in the United States. He was later 
appointed to construct the railroad of Russia. 
This circumstance explains the reason why 
the famous American painter passed his 
childhood in Europe. Jim or Jimmy, as he 
was commonly called by his family and 
friends, chose to follow the same career as 
his father, and in 1851 Whistler entered 
West Point, where he displayed a marked 
ability to manage the pencil and excelled as 
a French scholar. 

His taste of freedom and his artistic temp- 
erament interfered with the strict discip ine 
of West Point, and he left before his course 
was completed. Appointed as a draughtsman 
in the office of the Navy at Washington, 
Whistler experienced a complete failure be- 
cause the engraving that he was assigned to 
execute, proved to be entirely too artistic to 
serve the purpose of his chiefs. To a perfect 
drawing of the sea and the embankment of a 
hill, the young artist had chosen to add, of 
his own initiative, a group of personages 
drawn in the caricature style. For the im- 
pression of cards this piece of work was 
wholly unsuited. He was then forced to 
leave Washington as he h;> it West Point. 

Determined to become .... artist Whistler 
settled in Paris in 1855. He entered the 
studio of Gleyre, a romantic painter of that 
period. In spite of his fortune, which as- 
sured him a very liberal income. Whistler 
worked faithfully at his art dividing his time 
between painting and etching. He became 
associated with famous artists such as Degas, 
Brocquemond, Legros, and P'antin-Latour 
with whom he formed an intimate friendship. 
His sojourn in Paris was marked by numer- 
ous interesting events which were to reflect 
on his whole life. The noted artist Courbet, 
who saw one of his paintings "Au Piano" (a 
portrait of his half-sistv.. at the piano) was 
greatly impressed by his talent to represent 
unusual effect of coloring as well as by the 
charm of the composition. The two men 
(Whistler and Courbet) entertained a last- 


ing friendship, and Whistler acquired the 
reputation of a skilful painter in France. Un- 
fortunately, he decided to go to England, 
where his family was already settled, and 
where he later experienced so much bitter- 
ness. During the ten years that followed his 
residence in London, the works that he ac- 
complished were powerful creations that 
showed the development of his originality as 
a painter. His love for Japanese coloring 
influenced his art and Japanese costumes and 
accessories were introduced in almost all his 

Whistler stands in a unique position, as 
very few artists have tried with success to 
express themselves in so many different med- 
iums. He painted in oil. in watercolor. in 
pastel and excelled as an etcher. Whistler 
joined in his skill of execution a remarkable 
knowledge and a keen appreciation of color 
combination which he emphasized in his 
works. This dominant factor which failed to 
be understood by the majority of English 
painters caused no end of annoyance to the 
young artist whose application of tone ar- 
rangement astonished the general public. 
Whistler, far from gaining in prestige (after 
having been admitted to the Academy) saw 
the "Portrait of the Artist's Mother" refused 
by the committee of reception. However, an 
old member by the name of W'illiam Boxall 
threatened to resign if the picture was not 
exhibited. It was then called "Arrangement 
in Gray and Black." 

At the present time the idea of color har- 
mony is sufficiently spread out to understand 
Whistler's method of execution which was 
based on purely aesthetic quality, but the 
painters in England during that period of the 
Nineteenth Century objected to this contrary 
mode on the ground that it exemplified a de- 
cided lack of sound knowledge. His pictures 
passed for unfinished. However, Whistler's 
achievement reached a high standard of per- 
fection during the twenty years of struggle 
for recognition. Determined to oppose and 
resist the unjust criticism of the Academy 
and the general malevolence of the pub'ic. 
Whistler conceived the idea of holding a priv- 
ate exhibition at No. 48 Pall-Mali, London. 
The catalogue that he prepared was in itself 
enough to arouse the indignation of the un- 
fair population. He felt the freedom to ex- 
press his feelings, and every painting that he 
sent was designated in the style of musical 




Smith Passage du Dragon — Whistler 

Courtesy Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 

productions: "Harmony in Gray and Peach 
color," "Symphony in Blue and Rose Color," 
"Variation in Blue and Green." This orig- 
inality to adopt a language that had only 
been used for music caused considerable in- 
dignation although Whistler had a perfect 
right to select the terms that he preferred. 
Even his portraits bore these novel designa- 
tions. "Portrait of Carlyle, Arrangement in 
Gray and Black," "Portrait of Miss Alexan- 
der, Harmony in Gray and Green." etc. 

By his independent attitude in regard to 
his system of specification for his paintings, 
Whistler was judged in an inferior position 
as an artist, being accused of a lack of abil- 
ity to appeal to the general intelligence in 
the realm of ideas. The Royal Academy of 
London, an old institution, that dates back 
to the eighteenth century, represented the 
tradition of art at that time in England, 
and its limited number of members followed 
strict rules about the ethics of art which 

were not in accordance with Whistler's con- 
ception of true artistic values. 

When Grosvenor Gallery opened. Whistler 
figured with seven magnificent canvases des- 
ignated in the very same manner which he 
had adopted, "Portrait of Carlyle, Arrange- 
ment in Brown," "Portrait of Irving the 
Actor in the Role of Philip II of Spain. 
Arrangement in Black," "Harmony in Am- 
ber and Black," and Four Nocturnes, Two 
in Blue and Silver and One in Blue and Gold. 
His nocturnes were studies of night effects, 
and were sincere in their interpretation of 
mysterious expressions. This display aston- 
ished the public, who were accustomed to 
admire what was supposed to be approved 
by certain well-known artists of the Acad- 
emy. The American painter was once more 
condemned for his originality that no one 
seemed to understand. 

Ruskin, the well-known writer, proved to 
be extremelv severe in his criticism of Whis- 



tier. After praising Burne-Jones as a paint- 
er, Ruskin expressed himself as follows in 
regard to Whistler's work: "For Mr. Whis- 
tler's own sake." he wrote, "no less than 
for the protection of the purchaser, Sir 
Coutts Lindsey ought not to have admitted 
works into the Gallery, in which the ill-edu- 
cated conceit of the artist so nearly ap- 
proached the aspect of wilful imposture. I 
have seen and heard much of Cockney im- 
pudence before now; but never expected to 
hear a Coxcomb ask two hundred guineas 
for flinging a pot of paint in the public's 

A trial between Whistler and Ruskin fol- 
lowed this extraordinary attack, and Whis- 
tler, who was endowed with a fighting spirit, 
developed a remarkable talent as a writer. 

Gifted with unusual American wit. and the 
logical reasoning of the French, he became 
well known by his writings. People, who 
were in search of brilliant and witty per- 
sonalities, opened their doors to the artist, 
who gained popularity at clubs and social 
centers. But he still remained unknown as a 
painter, and his most cherished art continued 
to be misunderstood. Whistler, therefore, 
decided to go to France, where he had not 
sent a picture for fifteen years. It was then 
that he conceived the happy idea of exhib- 
iting his famous picture, "Portrait of the 
Artist's Mother." This event contributed to 
the change in feeling toward the American 
artist, and Whistler was recognized as a 
genius. He sent to the Salon of 1885 the 
superb portrait of Lady Archibald Camp- 
bell, followed in 1886 by a portrait of Theo- 
dore Duret, and one of Pablo Sarasate. and 
later, in 1890. two nocturnes, which prompt- 
ed the poet Verlaine to write this stanza: 

"Car nous voulons la nuance encor 
Pas la couleur rien que la nuance." 

Whistler was honored by the French Gov- 
ernment in 1889, which made him "Chevalier 
de Legion d'Honneur" after he had received 
the reward generally offered by the artists. 
He was deeply touched bv this mark c{ con- 
sideration, and expressed the desire that his 
beautiful picture, "Portrait of the Artist's 
Mother." should become the property of the 
nation for which he felt a real feeling of 
I affection. The price that he placed was so 

1 low that the Minister of Fine Arts. Mr. 

I Bourgeois, hesitated, and wrote to Whistler 
to express his surprise that such a master- 


Old Battersea Bridge 
Etching by James McNeill Whistler 

Ross Collection — Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 

piece could be thus evaluated. The letter 
that Mr. Bourgeois received from the artist 
was a sympathetic message expressing his 
delight. The price of that picture was a 
secondary matter for Whistler, who consid- 
ered that France was the nation that should 
own his cherished masterpiece. 

The prolonged absence of Whistler from 
his native country had been detrimental 
his reputation as a painter, but Mr. Geot^ 
Lucas, of Baltimore, whom he met in Paris, 
introduced him to Mr. Avery, general com- 
missioner of the art section at the World's 
Fair of 1893. A large number of his paint- 
ings were selected for the exhibit, and Mr. 
Avery began a collection of his etchings, 
which is now the possession of the New York 
Public Library. 

In 1888, Whistler had been married to 
the daughter of the English sculptor, Philip. 
She was the widow of one of his close 
friends, an architect by the name of Good- 
win. Later he came to Paris to live, and 
occupied a house at No. 10 rue du Bac. 

While Whistler continued to take an active 
part in the French exhibitions, to which he 
contributed generously, his paintings were 
also accepted in the Galleries of London. A 
change in the general feeling had taken 
place. However, it is to be regretted that 
such an organization as the Royal Academy 
should have failed to elect Whistler as one 
of theirs. 

After his wife's death. Whistler returned 
to England to live with his relatives (in 
Cheyne-Walk, Chelsea), who could bestow 
all the care that he needed during these last 
vears of his life. He died in 1903, and is 
buried in the cemetery of Chiswick. where 
his wife rests, and not far from the grave of 
the great artist, Hogarth. M. E. J. 



Washington In Painting and Sculpture 

Quelque chose de silencieux enveloppe 
les actions de Washington. Ce ne sont 
pas ses destinees que porte ce heros d'une 
nouvelle espece, ce sont celles de son 

— Chateaubriand. 

American visitors in far away lands often 
experience quite a thrill when they perceive 
in a Square or a charming Plaza of a beau- 
tiful foreign city, the marble or bronze trib- 
ute to their National Hero. The image of 
Washington has been carved and erected 
in a large number of Capitals all over the 
world, so strong is the general admiration 
for the American Patriot. The paintings of 
the American Idol may not be as numerous, 
' but several are justly considered master- 

Gilbert Stuart and Jean Antoine Houdon 
have, no doubt, succeeded better than any 
of the other fifty-five artists in the render- 
ing of Washington's likeness, and in the in- 
terpretation of his dignity. It is said that 
about 20.000 likenesses of the man. who 
counts among the greatest figures of hu- 
manity, were executed by portrait painters, 
sculptors, draughtsmen, and amateurs. The 
interest to paint or carve a likeness of the 
American Hero was enhanced when it was 
revealed that Washington willingly granted 
sittings to artists. Pictures of the great 
man appeared in large numbers, executed 
by American, French. English, Italian. 
Scotch. Irish and Swedish artists. Some even 
painted Washington without having seen 
him, so great was the desire to portray the 
Protecter of Liberty. 

Speaking of portraits, Mr. Holman in his 
"Within the Compass of a Print Shop," says: 
"Probably of no one except Shakespeare 
and Napoleon, have more appeared. Hun- 
dreds of these portraits were, of course, in 
the strict meaning of that term, not por- 
traits at all, but enthusiastic attempts to 


portray faithfully the features of the first 
great hero of the newly-born Republic. 
Sometimes they were crude, sometimes mas- 

Among the sixty artists who have at- 
tempted to produce a likeness of Washing- 
ton, at least thirty-nine of them were 
American and eight were French artists. 

During twenty-six years of his life Wash- 
ington granted sittings to almost every artist 
who appeared anxious to make his likeness. 
In 1785, his thoughts about sitting for a 
portrait were expressed as follows: "In for 
a penny, in for a pound is an old adage. 
I am so hacknayed to the touches of the 
Painter's pencil, that I am now altogether at 
their beck. And sit like Patience on a monu- 
ment while they are delineating the lines 
of my face. It is proof, among many others, 
of what habit and custom can effect. At 
first. I was impatient at the request, and 
as restive under the operation as a colt is 
of the saddle. The next time, I submitted 
very reluctantly, but with less flouncing. 
Now no dray moves more readily to the Thill 
than I do to the Painter's Chair." 

Later, however, Washington refused to 
grant sittings unless they were requested 
for some important motive. In spite of their 
sincerity, enthusiasm, and audacity, many] 
artists or amateurs failed utterly to translate 
the great man's dignity of character and 
obtain a likeness. 

Washington himself was known to ex- 
press his feelings in regard to some of 
these numerous canvasses. For example, he 
considered Madame de Brehan's miniature 
as "exceedingly like the original," and Mr 



Courtesy of Museum of Fine Arts 

'Portrait of George Washington" 
By Gilbert Stuart 

Folwell's silhouette "a most spirited and 
correct likeness.'' Of Stuart's portrait and 
Houdon's bust much has been said which 
need not be repeated here, both having been 
considered the best likenesses that were ever 
made of Washington. The three remark- 
able masterpieces painted by Gilbert Stuart 
were copied sixty times by the artist him- 
self, and many times by other artists. 

Charles Willson Peale, better known as 
the father of Rembrandt Peale (whose por- 
trait of the American Hero now hangs in 
the Capitol in Washington), was not con- 

sidered an accurate painter, and his son was 
much disturbed about it. However, the only 
portrait of Washington represented as a 
young man was made by Charles Willson 
Peale at Mount Vernon. This portrait has 
often been used as a model for the cor- 
rect attire of that period. As a young 
colonel. Washington wore a blue coat with 
red facings, and a waistcoat and breeches 
of the same shade of red. It is interesting 
to note here the famous anecdote concerning 
the Peale family, in Mr. Holman's account. 
(Please turn to page 26) 


Courtesy of Museum of Fine Arts 
''Washington at Dorchester Heights-" 
By Gilbert Stuart 

{Continued from page 16) 
Rembrandt Pealc from earliest boyhood had 
a great veneration for the person and char- 
acter of Washington, and became possessed 
of a strong desire some day to paint him 


from life. When the boy was seventeen his 
father, Charles Willson Peale, brought the 
matter to Washington's attention, and 
pleaded for a sitting. Washington grante 
three sittings of three hours each. At the first 
one the boy was so excited that he could not 
work. His father promptly set up an easel 






beside him and all went well. At the next 
sitting, while his father painted on his 
right, his uncle, James Peale, painted on his 
left, and subsequently his older brother, 
Raphael Peale, seized the occasion to make 
a profile sketch. Apropos of this sitting, 
Gilbert Stuart advised Mrs. Washington to 
have a care, for it looked to him as if her 
husband was being "Pealed all round." 

We learn by Rembrandt Peale, who wrote 
a biography of his father, that his fondness 
for art induced him to name his children 
after illustrious artists. Raphael, Angelica, 
Rembrandt, Rubens, Titian, were the names 
that he chose for his progeny. Rembrandt, 
however, is the only one of his sons who 
became a painter. Both the father and son 
were among the seventy-one citizens who 
drew a petition for the incorporation of the 
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, in 

Joseph Wright painted a portrait of 
Washington, and also made a life mask, 
Considered a faithful artist, Wright was 
appointed a draughtsman when the Mint of 
the United States was established. It is sup- 
posed that he designed the first coins used 
in this country. His mother, Patience 
Wright, was well known for her wax heads 
which she made of famous personages. Writ- 
ing about his bust in wax, Washington ex- 
pressed his satisfaction in having Mrs. 
Wright make it. 

William Dunlap, who made a pastel of 
Washington, is better known as the author 
of "A History of the Rise and Progress of 
the Arts and Design in the United States." 
However, his portraits are quite numerous. 

William Williams is occasionally men- 
tioned because of his inartistic portrait of 
Washington, which hangs at the Lodge of 
Masons at Alexandria, Virginia. 

The gold medal, presented by the Conti- 
nental Congress in recognition of Washing- 
ton's service to his country, was designed 
and executed by the distinguished French 
medalist, Pierre Simon Benjamin Duvivier. 
This medal is considered a masterpiece, and 
is owned by the Boston Public Library. Very 
few people have seen it, although it is exhib- 
ited every year, in the Treasure Room of 
the Central Library at the time of Washing- 
ton's birthday. 

Guiseppe Ceracchi, an Italian sculptor, 
came from Italy with the aim of making 

busts and monuments of distinguished char- 
acters, and he accomplished his purpose. The 
colossal bust of Washington which he made, 
then, was later destroyed by fire in the con- 
flagration of the Library of Congress. How- 
ever, another of his Washington busts, the 
property of Mr. John Cadwalader, may be 
seen in the Metropolitan Museum in New 

Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, a French 
sculptor, designed and carved the remark- 
able group of Washington and Lafayette 
which is in Paris, the replica of which is in 
New York. 

In 1827, a marble bust of the American 
Hero, much admired by the French nation, 
was presented to the United States. It was 
executed by a friend of the Marquis de 
Lafayette, named Pierre Jean David 
d 'Angers, and was supposed to have been 
destroyed in the Congressional Library fire 
in 1851, but was found later, and sent to 
Marino, California, where it now stands 
with other works of art in the Huntington 
Library. Descendants of Lafayette, Roch- 
ambeau, and De Grasse thinking that the 
bust should be replaced, used the original 
plaster model, and had a bronze copy made, 
which was unveiled on February 22, 1905, 
in the Capitol of Washington. Mr. J. J. 
Jusserand, Ambassador of France, presented 
the bust, which may be seen by visitors in 
Washington. It is a magnificent tribute to 
the founder of the American Republic. 


Of/7, I'oeuvre •sort plus belle 
D'une forme au travail 

Vers, marbre, onyx, email. 

Point de contraintes fausses! 
Mais que pour marcher droit 

Tu chausses, 
Muse, un cothurne etroit. 

Fi du rythme commode, 
Comme un Soulier trop grand, 

Du mode 
Que tout pied quitte et prend! 

Statuaire, repousse 
L'argile qui petrit 

Le pouce 
Quand flotte ailleurs I'esprit. 



Lutte avec le carrare, 
Avec le paros clur 

Et rare, 
Gardiens du contour pur; 

Emprunte a Syracuse 
Son bronze ou fermemeni 

S' accuse 
Le trait ficr et charmantj 

line main delicate 
Poursuis dans un filon 

D' agate 
Le profit d'.l pollon. 

Peintre, fuis I'aquarelle, 
Et fixe la couleur 
Trap frele 
Au four de I'emailleur. 

Fais lex sirenes hi cues, 
Tordant de cent facOUS 

Leurs queues, 
Let monstres des Ida sons. 

Dans son nimbe trilobe 
La Vierge et son Jesus, 

Le globe 
Avec la croix dessus. 

Tout passe. — L'art robust e 
Seul a I'eternite , 

Le busta 
Survit a la cite. 

Ft la medaille austere 
Que trouve un labourew 

Sous terre 
Revel e un empereur. 

Les dieux eux-memes meurent, 
Mais les vers souverains 

Plus forts que les airains. 

Sculpte, lime, cisele; 
Que ton reve flottant 

Se seel I e 
Dans le bloc resistant! 

Theophile Gautier. 



Courtesy of t 

Self Portrait by Renoir 


| 1 lerre Augu.ste Renoir was horn in Lim- 

tnrl "A/? 1 ,' ^ 3 Painter ° f tlle XIX cen- 
• (t , lat h « ^ S ° dee P I y) Renoir is 
frequently called "The Great Artist of That 
period. His inspiration of life in Paris 
at that partlcular y mej (r . c 

Jed him to surpass the celebrated writer de 
Maupassant, i„ his unique description of 

aT S M neS ° f , CVer - Vda >' life charm 
and forcibly awaken heartfelt emotion 

With an abundance of material suitable 

for subject-matter. Renoir revealed himself 


as a master in the interpretation of a wealth 
of ideas, and in the freedom of execution, un- 
equalled hefore that time. 

Renoir realized the sterility of academic 
principles through his association with Cour- 
bet and Corot whose influence he followed 
during a certain part of his career. 

Fascinated by the beauty of harmony of 
shape and form, and rhythm of movement in 
the human figure, Renoir's art remained 
amazing, subtle, and full of mysterious at- 
traction. The word "impossible" was un- 
known to this XIX century genius who 
astonished everyone by his skill and the va- 
riety of his techniques. Through the clever 
manipulation of his pigments, as wi ll as by 
his choice of models, Renoir distinguished 
himself and gained his power. His real im- 
pressionist period, however, dates to about 
1875. He painted until tin last moments of 
his life and died in 15)1!). 

M. K. Jobin. 


The painting by Manet. THE RAIL- 
ROAD," lent by Mr. Horace Havemever of 
New York, caused considerable agitation 
when it was exhibited at the Salon in Paris 
(1871). Manet was the first artist to free 
himself from the traditional method of paint- 
ing. He asserted his privilege to change his 
views about both composition and technique. 

I'll rough the influence ami admiration of 
Velasquez. Manet achieved unusual effects in 
his art. In keeping with the new movement 
he painted what he saw, observing and study- 
ing his subjects with uncommon interest and 
a marked fascination. Thus, he contributed 
largely to the success of "impressionism" 
and became the dominating personality 
in a society composed of independent young 
artists. Meetings were held regularly 
at the Cafe Guerbois about 1866 where 
artists and writers exchanged their ideas on 
Art and Literature, thus giving birth to a 
revolution that was to stamp that remarkable 
period with an unparalleled freedom of ex- 

Manet's palette became more and more 
luminous after 1871. In 1881 he exhibited 
two superb portraits at the Salon where lie 
was awarded the gold medal. 

Parisian by birth, Edouard Manet was the 
son of an old French family. Endowed with 
a charming personality he remained a per- 
fect gentleman throughout his career, and 
was called "young man" even after he had 
passed forty. He died at the age of fifty- 
one in 1883, still in ignorance of his colossal 
success as a painter. 

M. E. Jobix. 

Courtesy of the Museum of Fine Arts 

The Railroad, by Edouard Manet 





and profit by leisure that one's soul may grow; 
to appreciate one's friends and increase their 
number; to recognize, if possible, that the uni- 
verse itself is friendly to us, not neutral, and 
not opposed; and so to come really to worship 
that which is above and beyond us. 

So to live is to have mental wholeness, the 
highest kind of health/ of mind. 

The supreme value of all is personality. We 
should be growing persons ourselves and respect 
others as persons. Our personality, — let's in- 
tegrate it, adjust it, improve \%, and help others 
so to do. 

Reprinted by courtesy of the author and 
the Alpha CirAe of the City of Boston 




Fashion and Style During the War 

Marie Eugenie Jobin, Trade School for Girls 

Should we allow ourselves to be thrilled at 
the two words "Fashion" and "Style," during 
this period of confusion? Yes! To retain our 
interest in clothes, to dress properly for various 
occasions and functions, should be considered 
somewhat of a patriotic duty. This satisfaction 
may act as a stimulant to our spirits and re- 
lieve a nervous condition created by the na- 
tion's present state of mind. 

We are all anxious to lend our energy and 
time to our country; therefore, the War Pro- 
duction Board decree of "Fashion Freezing" was 
accepted gracefully by a brg majority of 
Fashion experts and by American women in 
general. However, this restriction failed to be 
fully understood by many for whom Fashion 
and Style have about the same meaning. 

We can, and must remain stylishly dressed 
in spite of this ''stabilizing" of the present 
modes. The "well groomed look" that makes 
a woman chic and up-to-date, must not be 
sacrificed, even with the numerous activities 
caused by the present conflict. Considered 
from many angles, this decree furnishes an 
opportunity for the American woman to meet 
war problems with her usual cleverness. 

This deprivation of new fashions every sea- 
son can be a significant expression of patriotism. 
After all, style remains the main characteris- 
tic of costume; it is generally determined by 
the silhouette which is very often influenced by 
current events and our mode of living. It 
possesses that distinctive quality so essential to 
the feminine attire. Have we ever quite rea- 
lized that this type of dress scarcely changes 
within the limit of a century? Its adjuncts, 
however, very frequently, and even radically 

every year and sometimes every season. On 
the other hand fashion is a temporary fad. 
With its constant variation of lines and colors 
it follows the different tastes of the day and 
is governed by external circumstances. It is 
really the perpetual development of clothing 
in its varied forms and occasionally freakish 

After close analysis of dress along with the 
study of lines since the Egyptian costume, we 
discover that radical changes of design occur 
on these four main parts of a gown only, 
namely: the neck line, the waist line, the sleeve, 
and the skirt. Therefore, the details of a 
gown may vary considerably. Fortunately, 
there is more freedom and a greater range in 
the matter of dress, as seasons have practically 
ceased to influence the choice of material and 
also of colors. 

Once again, an unexpected occasion presents 
itself for the American woman to prove her 
originality and artistic sense . . . left-over bits 
of precious fabrics, trimmings, buttons and 
laces, will undoubtedly be combined in practical 
and stylish frocks without, however, changing 
the silhouette. Art is closely linked with dress, 
and each generation brings forth its tastes, its 
colors, its new line. "Fashion has its revolu- 
tions as Empires have" said the publisher of a 
French feminine publication of 1834- '"Fash- 
ions used to be slow in changing, today they 
follow the movement of the mind; they par- 
ticipate, in a large measure, in the instability 
of our institutions, and each century is more 
or less stamped similarily." The costv.nes of 
our ancestors can easily serve to date hi.ory. 

But it is to be noticed that eccentric modes 



seldom remain in vogue any length of time, 
they always invariably give place to more ar- 
tistic and graceful fashions. There is always a 
reason for the popularity of certain colors and 
also a marked tendency for women to wear 
these unusual tones at the beginning of every 
season. Until 1878, canary yellow as a color 
for gowns had not been in favor. A manu- 
facturer of Lyons, France, conceived the idea 
of launching velvet of that hue on the Paris- 
ian market. Unfortunately, merchants refused 
to buy this velvet on the ground that French 
women would not wear such a color. A fac- 
tory, filled with goods that would not sell 
meant ruin for this Frenchman. However, he 
became inspired with a brilliant idea; he went 
to Paris and interviewed the most popular 
actress of that time, imploring her to take 
enough velvet for a gown that she would wear 
on the Parisian stage. The sensation that she 
created when she appeared in a costume of 

this (then) odd hue may be imagined! Soon 
every woman in Paris wanted to wear canary 
yellow velvet. The manufacturer's fortune 
was made as this fashion swept Europe and 
came to America. 

Even during this troubled period a wealth 
of dainty substitutes dyed in an unlimited 
variety of gorgeous hues is offered to the fem- 
inine world. 

Whatever the financial prospect may be, the 
woman of America in all walks of life can re- 
main stylishly dressed, but should keep alert 
to this need of economy that must enter in 
every phase of all gowns and frocks. En- 
thusiasm and love of dress certainly cannot be 
detrimental to war efforts. It is to be re- 
membered that a thoroughly feminine costume 
adds considerably to the charm of the wearer 
and that simplicity is the keynote of good 



Meeting of Board of Directors 

Hotel Belleyue. Room 106. Monday, October 5, 1942 

Meeting of Board of Representatives 
14 Beacon St., Room 500, Wednesday, October 7, 1942, 4:30 P.M. 

Get -Together Tea 
Tuesday, October 13—4:30 P.M. 
Grand Ballroom. The Copley-Plaza 
Admission by Club Membership Ticket 
Nov. 18: Philomena Hart 
Subject: Current Books. Place: Lorimer Hall, Tremont Temple 

Other Events 

1. Christmas Musical 

2. Dr. Edgar G. Doudna — Subject: They Wanted Better Schools 

3. Representatives Tea 

The rest of our program will be announced later. Due to present 
conditions it seems wise not to make plans bevond February as yet. 



Life and Civilization 

Marie Eugenie Jobin, Trade School For Girls 
All cuts are by courtesy of the Marisf Missionary Sisters 

An imposing ceremony took place in the 
Chapel of the Convent of St. Theresa of 
Lisieux, at Bedford, Massachusetts, on the 2nd 
day of February, 1944. Anna Healy of Dor- 
chester, Massachusetts, formerly a teacher in 
the public school system, pronounced her vows 
and became Sister Mary Paula. With eight 
other American girls, she is now a life member 
of the Missionary Sisters of the Society of 

As an Art Teacher in the Trade School for 
Girls, Anna Healy cleverly concealed that ex- 
traordinary religious feeling and the secret 
longing of her heart. Her joyful exuberance 
and friendly personality, made her a favorite 
among her fellow teachers and the girls. There- 
fore, the high purpose of her life was not re- 
vealed until she entered the Convent, August, 
1941. Enthusiastic for the subject that she so 
fondly imparted to her pupils, Anna Healy 
was a very talented young woman; in fact, 
she took part in the Teachers Art Exhibit at 
Jordan Marsh Company, in October, 193 8, 
with two very fine watercolors. 

Spiritually attracted by the Order that she 
selected, Sister Mary Paula qualifies with a 
high standard for the great adventure which 
we may call a glorious one — that of teaching 
and Christianizing the various tribes of the 
Marist Missions. 

The Society of Mary comprises the Marist 
Fathers, the Marist Brothers, the Marist Sisters, 
the Missionary Sisters of the Society of Mary, 
and the Third Order. It was founded by Jean 
Claude Colin, born in the charming village of 
St. Bonnet-le-Troncy in France, August, 1790. 
In April, 183 6, Pope Gregory XVI gave his 
approval of the Society to which he entrusted 
the Missions of Oceania (now the theatre of 
war) on September of the same year. Recent- 
ly, several priests and nuns were killed, and 
others are prisoners of the Japanese. 

Bostonians, both Catholic and Protestants, 
are rather well acquainted with the "French 
Church," as it is usually called — Notre Dame 

des Victories, that friendly little Church on 
Isabella Street in Boston, under the direction 
of the Marist Fathers, and to whom Arch- 
bishop Williams gave the charge of a French 
Parish in Boston in 1883. On September 12, 
1886, the first stone was blessed and laid, and 
on October 31st of the same year, Father Aud- 
iffred sang the first Mass. The eloquence of 
many Marist Fathers attracted a large number 
of non-catholics who were fond of the French 
language. In 1925, Father Sollier, Pastor of 
Notre Dame des Victoires Church, became in- 
spired with the idea of establishing in or around 
Boston, a novitiate of the society of Mary. In 
this Convent young American girls, attracted 
by the religious atmosphere of missionary life, 
and strong enough to stand the monastic dis- 
cipline, could train for the work of the mis- 
sions and then go to France for their final 
vows (the Mother House being in Lyons, 
France). Encouraged by the many responses 
that he received, Father Sollier purchased a 
piece of property to house the postulants who 
later went to France to be finally received into 
the folds of the Marist Order. The success of 
his project was thus assured, and the Convent 
of St. Theresa of Lisieux at Bedford, Massa- 
achusetts, was erected. In 1929, its doors 
opened to the public. The Convent, a rather 
large building, beautifully situated in Bedford, 
now houses about fifty nuns anxious to re- 
sume the work of the missions, presumably 
after the war. 

Boston proudly claims the honor of having 
given to the Society its first Mother Superior- 
General of the Missionary Sisters of the So- 
ciety of Mary, in the person of Reverend 
Mother Mary Rose (formerly Mary Decker). 
She is now in Australia. 

The achievements of the Marist Order are 
varied and numerous, but their history, though 
extremely interesting, is too long to relate 
here in this brief article. It is quite evident, 
however, that the amazing results brought 
about by those missionaries, in spite of the 



many reverses and difficulties that they had 
to overcome, exemplifies in a large measure, the 
wonderful manner in which that noble enter- 
prise has been conducted since its infancy. The 
memorable date of December 24, 18 36, stands 
as a red letter day in the annals of the Society 
of Mary, when the first seven brave Marists, 
full of religious feeling, of untold zeal and 
dauntless energy, left Havre, France, for the 
distant Islands of Oceania. Surprising reports 
were sent to France from New Zealand as 
early as 1841, by Archbishop Pompallier. There 
were then about 45,000 native students, and 
approximately 1000 neophytes who were being 

We read about Wallis Island,— that in 1842 
more than 25 00 natives were converted; the 
island also furnished native priests and nuns 
for Central Oceania and Samoa. During the 
development of the Marist Missions of Oceania 
— in the performance of their duties — a con- 
siderable number of missionary Fathers fell 
victims of the natives' brutal assaults and 
others died of fever and leprosy. The first 
martyr, Father Chanel, was cruelly massacred 
by the savages of Futuna Island (1841). 
Strange as it may seem, when the warship 
"L'Allier" was sent from France to get the body 
of Father Chanel, the entire population of the 
Island begged for another missionary, so re- 
pentant were they for their crime. 

As a successful Mission, New Caledonia 
may be especially mentioned. Through years 
of sacrifice and numerous difficulties, the as- 
tonishing development of that apostolic vicar- 
age stands out. The credit may be justly at- 
tributed to Father Rougeyron who served 
fifty-nine years through the most trying period 
of that holy enterprise. He distinguished him- 
self as the chaplain of the lazar-house of Balep, 
and even declined the honor of being elevated 
to the rank of Bishop. When he died in 1902, 
the number of converts in the Mission reached 
the amazing figure of 20,000. Hence, the 
reason why Father Rougeyron remains one of 
the most remarkable personalities of the XIX 
Century in the Mission world. In 1932, New 
Caledonia counted 44 Marist Fathers for the 
schools, assisted by 36 Marist Brothers, 37 
Marist Sisters, 39 Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny, 

13 Little Sisters of the Poor, and 43 native 
nuns. The Cathedral of Noumea was a digni- 
fied and lovely edifice, overlooking the en- 
trance to the port and dominating the entire 


The achievement at Fiji Islands is no less 
remarkable. Before the war, 21 Stations com- 
prised the Mission, with 30 Marist Fathers and 
schools systematically organized under the 
guidance of 16 Marist Brothers, 20 Marist 
Sisters, and 1 1 Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny. 
Thirty-two Missionaries of the Society of 
Mary, 28 native Brothers, and 38 native Sis- 
ters formed the group that performed the 
duties of the apostolic vicarage of Fiji, The 
churches, designed by a French architect (a 
Marist Father), were superb buildings. 

There were many British Colonials on these 
islands which necessitated the recruiting of 
young American women who spoke the Eng- 
lish language and quite often the two lan- 
guages — French and English — if they happened 
to be Franco-Americans. The lazar-house at 
Makogai was erected by the Government for 
the natives of Fiji and the other islands nearby. 
Twelve Missionary Sisters of the Society of 
Mary, assisted by fifteen or more native nuns, 
devoted themselves to the care of those wretch- 
ed patients. Every day these valiant and 
courageous Sisters started on horseback carry- 
ing with them the necessary equipment for 
their gruesome task, and to inspire new hopes 
in the souls of those unfortunate creatures. 

Before the war, the Solomon Islands were 
considered to be the most progressive of the 
Marist Apostolic Vicarage. Besides the Missions 
of New Zealand, the Marist Province counted 
7 Bishops, 166 Marist Fathers, 6 5 Marist 
Brothers (teachers), 16 Assistant Brothers, 
277 Marist Sisters, 11 native priests, 28 native 
Brothers, and 182 native Sisters. These figures 
may not seem large considering the vast area 
of the territory in that part of the world, but 
one must bear in mind that before 1836 few 
explorers had ventured to remain very long 
with these natives who were for the majority, 
cannibals and savages, — hence, our admiration 
for this great spiritual movement, which means 
real Civilization. 



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